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ST-segment elevation during levosimendan infusion. Levosimendan increases the sensitivity of the heart to calcium and consequently exerts positive inotropic effects.

Levosimendan is indicated in acutely decompensated severe congestive heart failure. We report that levosimendan infusion may induce myocardial ischemia in patients with acute heart failure. Levosimendan for Perioperative Cardioprotection: Levosimendan is a calcium aprendicfs drug causing ddl contractility in the myocardium and vasodilation in the vascular system.

It is mainly used for the therapy of acute decompensated heart failure.

Several studies on animals and humans provided evidence of the cardioprotective properties of levosimendan including preconditioning and anti-apoptotic. In view of these favorable effects, levosimendan has been tested in patients undergoing cardiac surgery for the prevention or treatment of low cardiac output syndrome.

levosimendan nueva estrategia: Topics by

However, initial positive results from small studies have not been confirmed in three recent large trials. To summarize levosimendan mechanisms of action and clinical use and to review available evidence on its perioperative use in cardiac surgery setting.

We searched two electronic medical databases for randomized controlled trials studying levosimendan in cardiac surgery patients, ranging from January to August Meta-analyses, consensus documents and retrospective studies were also reviewed.

In the selected interval of time, 54 studies on the use of levosimendan in heart surgery have been performed.

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Early small size studies and meta-analyses have suggested that perioperative levosimendan infusion could diminish mortality and other adverse outcomes i.

However, in LEVO-CTS trial, prophylactic levosimendan administration significantly reduced the incidence of low cardiac output syndrome. Based on most recent randomized controlled trials, levosimendanalthough effective for the treatment of acute heart failure, can’t be recommended as standard therapy for the management of heart surgery patients.

Further studies are needed to clarify whether selected subgroups of heart surgery patients may benefit from perioperative levosimendan. Levosimendan in Critical Illness: Levosimendanthe active enantiomer of simendan, is a calcium sensitizer developed for treatment of decompensated heart failure, exerts its effects independently of the beta adrenergic receptor and seems beneficial in cases of severe, intractable heart failure.

Levosimendan is usually administered as h infusion, with or without a loading dose, but dosing needs adjustment in patients with severe liver or renal dysfunction. Despite several promising reports, the role of levosimendan in critical illness has not been thoroughly evaluated.

Available evidence suggests that levosimendan is a safe treatment option in critically ill patients and may reduce mortality from cardiac failure.

However, data from well-designed randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients are needed to validate or refute these preliminary conclusions. This literature review is an attempt to synthesize available evidence on the role and possible benefits of levosimendan in critically ill patients with severe heart failure. Levosimendan for Hemodynamic Support after Cardiac Surgery.

Acute left ventricular dysfunction is a major complication of cardiac surgery and is associated with increased mortality. Meta-analyses of small trials suggest that levosimendan may result in a higher rate of survival among patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients in whom perioperative hemodynamic support was indicated after cardiac surgery, according to prespecified criteria.

Patients were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan in a continuous infusion at a dose of 0. The primary outcome was day mortality. The trial was stopped for futility after patients were enrolled. A total of patients were assigned to receive levosimendan and to receive placebo. There was no significant difference in day mortality between the levosimendan group and the placebo group 32 patients [ There was no significant difference between the levosimendan group and the placebo group in rates of hypotension or cardiac arrhythmias.

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In patients who required perioperative hemodynamic support after cardiac surgery, low-dose levosimendan in addition to standard care did not result in lower day mortality than placebo. Levosimendan improves postresuscitation outcomes in a rat model of CPR. In this study we sought to determine whether a calcium sensitizer, levosimendanwould have a more favorable effect on postresuscitation myocardial function and, consequently, postresuscitation survival than beta-adrenergic dobutamine.

The extreme decrease in survival before hospital discharge of resuscitated victims is attributed, in part, to postresuscitation myocardial failure, and dobutamine has been recommended for the management of postresuscitation myocardial failure.

We studied a total of 15 animals. Ventricular fibrillation was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats weighing to g.

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Cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPRincluding aprendics compressions and mechanical ventilation, was begun after 8 minutes of untreated cardiac arrest. Electrical defibrillation was norebrto after 6 minutes of CPR. Each animal was resuscitated. Animals were randomized to undergo treatment with levosimendandobutamine, or saline-solution placebo.

These agents were administered 10 minutes after the return of spontaneous circulation. Levosimendan was administered in a loading dose of 12 microg kg -1 over a minute period, followed by infusion of 0. Dobutamine was continuously infused at a dosage of 3 microg kg -1 min Saline-solution placebo was administered in the same volume and over the same amount of time as levosimendan. Levosimendan and dobutamine produced comparable increases in cardiac output and rate of left-ventricular pressure increase.

However, administration of levosimendan resulted in lower heart rates and lesser increases in left ventricular diastolic pressure compared with both dobutamine and placebo. Aprendlces and dobutamine both improved postresuscitation myocardial function. The utility of levosimendan in the treatment of heart failure.

Calcium sensitizers are a new group of inotropic drugs. Levosimendan is the only calcium sensitizer in clinical use in Europe. Its mechanism of action includes both calcium sensitization of contractile proteins and the opening of adenosine triphosphate ATP -dependent potassium channels as mechanism of vasodilation. The combination of K-channel opening with positive inotropy offers potential benefits in comparison to currently available intravenous inotropes, since K-channel opening protects myocardium during ischemia.

Due to the calcium-dependent binding of levosimendan to troponin C, the drug increases contractility without negative lusitropic effects. In patients with heart failure levosimendan dose-dependently increases cardiac output and reduces pulmonary capillary wedge pressure.

Since levosimendan has an active metabolite OR with a half-life of some 80 hours, the duration of the hemodynamic effects significantly exceeds the 1-hour half-life of the parent compound. The hemodynamic effects of the levosimendan support its use in acute and postoperative heart failure. These trials were carried out in patients with high filling pressures. These trials did not require filling pressures to be measured. The two trials showed that levosimendan improves the symptoms of heart failure, but does not improve survival.

The results raise the question whether a hour levosimendan infusion can be used without invasive hemodynamic monitoring. Role of levosimendan in the management of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage aSAH is one of the leading causes of neurologic disability accounting for dismal long term survival rates. Excessive sympathetic stimulation leads to catecholamine mediated myocardial dysfunction and hemodynamic instability which may critically hamper brain perfusion and oxygenation.

In the setting of acute aSAH, administration of vasoactive drugs aims at stabilizing impaired hemodynamics. Although there have been limited data available regarding the use of levosimendan in patients with aSAH, current evidence suggests that levosimendan may have a role in the setting of post-aSAH cardiomyopathy and decreased cerebral blood flow both in the emergency departments and in intensive care units.


The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of studies of levosimendan therapy for aSAH, and describe current knowledge about the effects of levosimendan in the management of aSAH.

We investigated if chronic levosimendan treatment can prevent and revert pressure-overload-induced right ventricular hypertrophy and failure in rats. Right ventricular hypertrophy and failure was induced in Wistar rats by pulmonary trunk banding PTB. Right ventricular function was evaluated 7 weeks after surgery by echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, pressure-volume relations, gross anatomy, and histology. PTB induced right ventricular hypertrophy and compensated heart failure evident by reduced cardiac index CI without extra cardiac signs of heart failure.

Chronic treatment with levosimendan prevents the development of right ventricular failure and improves contractility in established pressure-overload-induced right ventricular failure. Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan at a dose of 0.

The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. A total of patients underwent randomization, of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population.

The four-component primary end point occurred in of patients The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate with placebo among patients with a. Effect of short-term treatment with levosimendan on oxidative stress in renal tissues of rats.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the influences of short-term treatment with levosimendan chemical formula: C14H12N6O on oxidative stress and some trace element levels in renal tissues of healthy rats. A total of 20 male Wistar-albino rats were randomly divided into two groups, each consisting of 10 rats. Animals in the first group were not treated with levosimendan and served as control.

Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan – but not milrinone-induced postconditioning in rat hearts. Background The authors examined whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore mPTP.

Methods Wistar rats underwent min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. The rats received milrinone or levosimendan just before reperfusion under normoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions with or without atractyloside, an mPTP opener. All of these cardioprotective effects under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia are abolished by atractyloside.

Conclusion Arendices and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening. Hyperglycemia raises the threshold of levosimendan -induced postconditioning, while milrinone-induced postconditioning is not influenced by hyperglycemia. The authors apreendices whether milrinone and levosimendan could exert cardiac postconditioning effects in rats under normoglycemia and hyperglycemia, and whether the effects could be mediated by mitochondrial permeability transition pore mPTP.

Wistar rats underwent min coronary artery occlusion followed by 2-h reperfusion. Milrinone and levosimendan exert postconditioning effects via inhibition of mPTP opening.