ASTM D Resistance to Pilling. What This Test is Used For: This test is used to cover the resistance to the formation of pills and other related surface. ASTM D/DM Standard Test Method for Pilling Resistance and Other Related Surface Changes of Textile Fabrics: Random. Find the most up-to-date version of ASTM D at Engineering

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ASTM D von Random Tumble Pilling Tester1 This standard is issued under the? A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon e indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. The procedure is generally applicable to all types of woven and knitted apparel fabrics.

Within the text, asfm inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. Within the text, the inch-pound units are shown in parentheses.

The values stated d512 each system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in nonconformance with the speci? It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Summary of Test Method 4. Pills are caused to form on fabric by a random rubbing action produced by tumbling specimens in a cylindrical test chamber lined with a aetm abrasive material.

To form pills with appearance and structure that resemble those produced in actual wear, small amounts of short-length gray cotton? The degree of fabric pilling is evaluated by comparison of the tested specimens with visual standards that may be actual fabrics, or photographs of fabrics, showing a range of pilling resistance.

The observed resistance to pilling is reported using an arbitrary rating scale. If it is used for acceptance testing, it should be used with caution because the between-laboratory precision is poor. Current edition approved Dec. Originally approved in Last previous edition approved in as D — 05 e1. As a minimum, d312 test samples should be used that are as homogeneous astk possible, drawn from the material from which the disparate test results were obtained, and randomly assigned in equal numbers to each laboratory for testing.

Other materials with established test values may be used for this purpose. The test results from the two laboratories should be compared using a statistical test for unpaired data, asm a probability level chosen prior to the testing series.

If a bias is found, either its cause must be found and corrected, or future test results must be adjusted in consideration of the known bias. Testing before refurbishing may be adviseable. The pilling resistance of astj speci? This experience should be borne in mind when adopting levels of acceptability for any series of standards. These factors are not evaluated when pilling is rated solely on the number xstm pills.

The development of pills may be accompanied by other surface phenomena such as loss of cover, color change, or the development of fuzz. Since the overall acceptability of a speci? A series of standards, based on x3512 degrees of surface change of the fabric type being tested, may be set up to provide a basis for subjective ratings.

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ASTM D3512 Textile Random Tumble Pilling Tester

The visual standards are most advantageous when the laboratory test specimens d35112 closely in appearance with worn fabrics and show a similar ratio of pills to fuzz. Counting the pills and weighing their number with respect to their size and contrast, as a combined measure of pilling resistance, is not recommended because of the excessive time required for counting, sizing, and calculating. The observed resistance to pilling is reported on an arbitrary scale ranging from 5 no pilling to 1 very severe pilling.

Apparatus and Materials 6. The original surface of the liner, produced by slicing the sstm, should be used without any further treatment such as sanding. Store liners in original packaging in a cool, dry place. Apparatus and options for visual d35112 are listed in Table 1. No universal standard fabric is available.

Each test facility must decide on an appropriate fabric. Store the fabric rating standards and handle them under conditions that will preserve their original form and appearance.

Pilling Resistance Testing of Textile Fabrics Using ASTM and AATCC

NOTE 2—An awtm speci? For fabric components of fabricated systems use the entire system. Selection, Number, and Preparation 9. Take the specimens evenly spaced across the width of the laboratory sample or from three different panels in a garment. Specimens should be staggered wstm such a manner that no two specimens contain the same yarns. Avoid areas with d35512 and other distortions.

Hang the specimens on racks until dry, and in any case for at least 2 h. NOTE 3—Full-strength adhesive or any dilution down to 1 part adhesive with 1 part water may be used see 7. Pressing the adhesive into the specimen face may be accomplished using the dispensing nozzle in a closed con? The rounded end of a glass stirring rod works well, also, but caution should be used to prevent breakage and possible injury from broken glass. NOTE 4—Although the use of glued or not glued specimens is acceptable, the measurements should not be compared.

Cotton sliver is available commercially. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. Preparation of Apparatus The side against the chamber may or may not have been used. To eliminate any tendency for the liner to rotate, tape the outside edge of the liner to the chamber wall at the butt joint with a short piece of mm 1-in.

Allow the chamber to dry before the next use. Check, also, when test results appear questionable, or following a change in test equipment such as the use of a new shipment of cork liners. Always use the same weight and plane angle. After each test, clean the bottom of the weight by wiping with a cloth wetted in a solution of detergent and water. Compare data from each shipment to avert problems.

NOTE 5—If there is not sufficient material to provide three standard-size specimens, run with the available number of specimens rather than adding a specimen from another fabric, since there may be a strong interaction between fabrics which will create misleading results. Tests run with one or two specimens, while not strictly comparable with standard tests, are considered more indicative than tests that include more than one fabric type. NOTE 6—The mass of a 6-mm long section of tex sliver is about 25 mg.

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Firmly grasp the specimen by a corner and allow the vacuum suction to draw the specimen inside. Repeat, holding an adjacent corner. Vacuum all specimens in this manner. Vacuum-clean the test chamber. Clean around the shaft of the impeller using a sharp instrument, such as a pick needle, to remove trapped detritus. Add another 25 mg see Note 6 of 6-mm 0. To cope with this problem in the laboratory, make a subsequent test using the used liner surface on which the silicone-treated fabric was tested with a standard in-house fabric of known pilling history.

If the liner being checked has been contaminated, the pilling level on the standard rating fabric will be different than historical results obtained when testing as in Both results should be reported. NOTE 7—Depending on the nature of the material under test, running times of other than 30 min may be more appropriate for evaluating the pilling tendencies of fabrics; for example, min intervals up to 30 min may be more indicative for certain knit or soft-woven fabrics.

NOTE 8—The use of air injection with all fabrics, woven or knitted, has been found to signi? If a specimen wedges around the impeller without tumbling or lies inert on the bottom or side of the chamber, shut off the air, stop the machine, remove the face plate, and free the specimen.

Record on the data sheet any hang-ups or other abnormal behavior of the specimens. If the pills are concentrated in any one strip in either fabric direction, or in any one portion of a specimen, report this condition. Strips indicate that different yarns may have been used in making the fabric being tested.

If any of the specimens show a high concentration of pills in a general line not parallel to either fabric direction, assume a specimen is wedged around the impeller see Note 8 for one or more periods during the test. Discard these and repeat the test with new specimens.

It is advisable to have a separate set of in-house fabric rating standards for each surface effect to be rated. Describe the material or product sampled and the method of sampling used.

Precision and Bias The test results showed that those fabrics with average ratings less than or equal to 2. There is no independent, referee method by which bias may be determined. This test method has no known bias.

Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every? Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters.

If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. Individual reprints single or multiple copies of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at phonefaxor service astm.