An umbilical hernia is a health condition where the abdominal wall behind the navel is damaged. It may cause the navel to bulge outwards—the bulge. Left supraumbilical [ventral] hernia. Discussion. Acquired hernias are of many types. One way of classifying them is external or abdominal wall hernias [defect in. Your muscles are usually strong and tight enough to keep your organs and intestines in place, but a hernia can develop if there are any weak spots.
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Umbilical hernia: Causes, symptoms, and treatments
An umbilical hernia is a health condition where the abdominal wall behind the navel is damaged. Supraumgilical may cause the navel to bulge outwards—the bulge consisting of abdominal fat from the greater omentum or occasionally parts of the small intestine.
The bulge can often be pressed back through the hole in the abdominal wall, and may “pop out” when coughing or otherwise acting to increase intra-abdominal pressure. Treatment is surgical, henria surgery may be performed for cosmetic as well as health-related reasons.
A hernia is present at the site of the umbilicus commonly called a navel or belly button in newborns ; although sometimes quite large, these hernias tend to resolve without supraummbilical treatment by around the age of 2—3 years. The size of the base of the herniated tissue is inversely correlated with risk of strangulation i. Babies are prone to this malformation because of the process during fetal development by which the abdominal organs form outside the abdominal cavity, later returning into it through an opening which will become the umbilicus.
Hernias may be asymptomatic and present only as a bulge of the umbilicus. Symptoms may develop when the contracting abdominal wall causes pressure on the hernia contents. This results in abdominal pain or discomfort. These symptoms may be worsened by the patient lifting or straining. The causes of umbilical hernia are congenital and acquired malformation, but an apparent third cause is really a cause of a different type, a paraumbilical hernia.
Congenital umbilical hernia is a congenital malformation of the navel umbilicus. Among adults, it is three times more common in women than in men; among children, the ratio is roughly equal.
An acquired umbilical hernia directly results from increased intra-abdominal pressure caused by obesityheavy liftinga long history of coughingor multiple pregnancies. Importantly, an umbilical hernia must be distinguished from a paraumbilical herniawhich occurs in adults and involves a defect in the midline near to the umbilicus, and from omphalocele.
Navels with the umbilical tip protruding past the umbilical skin “outies” are often mistaken for umbilical hernias, which are a completely different shape. Treatment for cosmetic purposes is not necessary, unless there are health concerns such as pain, discomfort or incarceration of the hernia content. Prolonged incarceration can lead to tissue ischemia strangulation and shock when untreated. Umbilical hernias are common.
However, a much smaller amount actually suffered from hernias: Ultrasound showing an incarcerated umbilical hernia . In some communities mothers routinely push the small bulge back in and tape a coin over the palpable hernia hole until closure occurs. This practice is not medically recommended as there is a small risk of trapping a loop of bowel under part of the coin resulting in a small area of ischemic bowel.
This “fix” does not help and germs may accumulate under the tape, causing infection. The use of bandages or other articles to continuously reduce the hernia is not evidence-based. An umbilical hernia can be fixed in two different ways. The latter is of a stronger hold and is commonly used for larger defects in the abdominal wall. Most surgeons will not repair the hernia until 5—6 years after the baby is born.
Most umbilical hernias in infants and children close spontaneously and rarely have complications of gastrointestinal -content incarcerations. How far the projection of the swelling extends from the surface of the abdomen the belly varies from child to child. In some, it may be just a small protrusion; in others it may be a large rounded swelling that bulges out when the baby cries.
It may hardly be visible when the child is quiet and or sleeping. Normally, the abdominal muscles converge and fuse at the umbilicus during the formation stage, however, in some cases, there remains a gap where the muscles do not close and through this gap the inner intestines come up and bulge under the skin, giving rise to an umbilical hernia.
The bulge and its contents can easily be pushed back and reduced into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to an inguinal herniathe complication incidence is very low, and in addition, the gap in the muscles usually closes with time and the hernia disappears on its own.
Umbilical hernia: What you need to know
The treatment of this condition is essentially conservative: Operation and closure of the defect is required only if the hernia persists after the age of 3 years or if the child has an episode of complication during the period of observation like irreducibility, intestinal obstructionabdominal distension with vomitingor red shiny painful skin over the swelling.
Surgery is always done under anesthesia. The defect in the muscles is defined and the edges of the muscles are brought together with sutures to close the defect. In general, the child needs to herina in the hospital for 1 day  and the healing is complete within 8 days. At times, there may be a fleshy red swelling seen in the hollow of the umbilicus that persists after the cord has fallen off.
It may bleed on touch, or may stain the clothes that come in contact with it. This needs to be shown to a suprakmbilical surgeon. This is most likely to be an umbilical polyp and the therapy is to tie it at the base with a stitch so that it falls off and there is no bleeding. Alternatively, it may be an umbilical granuloma that responds well to local application of dry salt or silver nitrate but may take a few weeks to heal and dry. Many hernias never cause any problems, and dupraumbilical not require any treatment at all.
However, because the risk of complications with age are higher and the hernia is unlikely suprajmbilical resolve without treatment, surgery is usually recommended. Usually hernia has content of bowel, abdominal fat or omentumtissue that normally would reside inside the abdominal cavity if it wasn’t for the hernia. In some cases, the content gets trapped in the hernia sac, outside the abdominal wall.
The blood flow to this trapped tissue may be compromised, or the content even strangulated in some cases. Depending on the severity and duration of blood flow compromise, it can cause some pain and discomfort. Usually the situation resolves itself, when the protrusion of content is returned back to the abdominal cavity. Sometimes this needs supraumbiliccal be done by a doctor at the ICU. If so, emergency surgery is often required, since prolonged compromise in blood flow otherwise threatens organ integrity.
Hernias that are symptomatic and disturb daily activity, or hernias that have had episodes of threatening incarceration, preventive surgical treatment can be considered. The surgery is performed under anaesthesiawhile the surgeon identifies the edges of the defect and bring them together permanently using either suture or mesh. The most common complications for both techniques are superficial wound infections, recurrence of the hernia  and some people experience pain from the surgical site.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Diastasis recti. Illustrated Textbook of Paediatrics 3rd ed. Retrieved March 3, Redefinition of ‘Normal’ and Reevaluation of Indications for Repair”. World Journal of Surgery. American Pediatric Surgical Association. Retrieved November 5, Ultrasound of the Week.
Retrieved 27 May Archived from the original on April 7, American Journal of Surgery. Diseases of the digestive system primarily K20—K93 supraukbilical, — Coeliac Tropical sprue Blind loop syndrome Small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome Whipple’s Short bowel syndrome Steatorrhea Milroy disease Bile acid malabsorption. Abdominal angina Mesenteric ischemia Angiodysplasia Bowel obstruction: Proctitis Radiation proctitis Proctalgia fugax Rectal prolapse Anismus.
Upper Hematemesis Melena Lower Hematochezia. Peritonitis Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Hemoperitoneum Pneumoperitoneum. Retrieved from ” https: Infobox medical condition All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November Articles with unsourced statements from February Commons category link is on Wikidata.