La presente Ley tiene por objeto adoptar medidas para proteger la salud de la Para efectos de la presente Ley, los siguientes términos se. the inception of the Tobacco Control Act in Colombia (Ley de ). .. ( Ley antitabaco supera otro escollo en el senado, 19 de noviembre de ). Ley required removing tobacco advertising including billboards and Aprobación de ley antitabaco pone en ‘jaque’ el futuro de la.
|Published (Last):||24 October 2015|
|PDF File Size:||14.74 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||10.24 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Smokefree implementation in Colombia: Monitoring, outside funding, and business support. To analyze successful national smokefree policy implementation lej Colombia, a middle income country. Key informants at the national and local levels were interviewed and news sources and government ministry resolutions were reviewed.
Nongovernmental organizations provided technical assistance and highlighted noncompliance. Organizations outside Colombia funded some of these efforts.
Argentina tiene una ley nacional de control de tabaco
Tobacco interests did not openly challenge implementation. Health organization monitoring, external funding, and hospitality industry support contributed to effective implementation, and could antitabcao cultivated in other low and middle income countries. Organizaciones fuera de Colombia financiaron algunos de estos esfuerzos. Smokefree laws protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke and reduce tobacco-induced diseases.
The experience of high income countries 45678910 shows that successful implementation requires active education and enforcement, 911 appropriate enforcement agencies, 5 and support from nongovernmental organizations NGOs.
Smoke-free implementation for low and middle-income countries LMICs is challenging because tobacco companies often have more resources than the health authorities, 14 and tobacco industry activities are less controlled,12 making implementation weak or uneven.
Colombia, with an adult smoking prevalence of In JulyLey dea comprehensive tobacco control law, expanded smokefree coverage to all hospitality venues, 20 making Colombia the country with lowest gross domestic product per capita with such a national smokefree law.
We conducted interviews with 14 in-country tobacco control advocates, national and local health authorities, and policymakers between October and December following protocol IRB approved by the University of California, San Francisco Committee on Human Research table I.
Health advocates then argued for legislation to comply with the FCTC. Toro, passed in July to implement FCTC Articles 8 and including smokefree areas, prohibiting tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, and prohibiting individual antitabbaco sales. Implementation of the smokefree provisions did not face the concerted tobacco industry opposition common elsewhere, 469101112131632 likely because the companies seem to have focused on countering the prohibitions on anhitabaco advertising, promotion and sponsorship.
Implementation, with generally good compliance and enforcement, varied regionally. As in high income countries, 333435 implementation included guidance from the Health Ministry to local health departments, education by health departments and advocates, and enforcement by local health authorities and police, especially in major cities. The Health Ministry provided guidance, but abtitabaco agencies had autonomy a in educational efforts, and worked with local police on enforcement.
For the law, the Health Ministry shared surveillance, education, and enforcement practices among local health departments. Implementation was strongest in big cities and in cities with supportive political leadership: Local health departments distributed materials to business owners and the public before and after implementation.
Implementation was weakest in rural areas and the Atlantic coast, with less interest from agencies in these areas e.
Health advocates had focused on large cities, e and the Colombian state had more presence in departmental capitals. Rural and small-city health agencies often knew little of the law e or claimed having limited resources and personnel.
Consistent with FCTC guidelines, 3 the law authorized enforcement by local police and health authorities. The law required signage about smokefree environments, but without a predefined list, allowing for more expansive text figure 1.
Organizations outside Colombia funded Colombian NGOs to antitabbaco educational materials and train local health department staff. In and Fenalco distributed flyers to business owners and employees claiming smoking in terraces was allowed 4450 because they were not under roofs 51 and claimed that health advocates were maligning Fenalco for its interpretation. Universities developed educational campaigns to antitaaco smokefree educational institutions. Different from high income countries, in Colombia there were few government resources, weak state capacity, and enforcement agencies focused on public security.
IQOS: la alternativa sin humo
Like many Latin American countries, Colombia lacked a strong national smokefree education campaign, 16 but had many vigorous local campaigns. Three factors in Colombia especially contributed to strong implementation.
First, noncompliance vigilantly exposed by NGOs, including for terraces, as in the case of local implementation antitabac Mexico and the US. SinceAsobares, with the help from the Campaign 1335 Tobacco-Free Kids, visited hospitality associations throughout Latin America to encourage national smokefree laws.
Third, international organizations aided implementation, wntitabaco NGOs to provide education and technical assistance. Smokefree legislation should clearly cover all workplaces and specify national and local agency responsibilities. Health advocates should cultivate hospitality association support in advance of legislation, when possible. International funders should continue strongly funding LMIC implementation, as moderate resources can make substantial impacts.
We attempted to contact tobacco control staff in departmental and large-city health agencies throughout Colombia. Only those highly engaged in implementation agreed to interviews, so our findings hold to the extent that such interviews captured the key issues of local implementation.
Colombia serves as an example of successful implementation of smokefree air in a middle income country. Beyond government agency activities, health organization vigilance, outside organization funding, and hospitality industry support contributed to strong implementation.
The funding agencies played no role in the selection of the research question, conduct of the research, or preparation of the manuscript. Department of Health and Human Services. Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Guidelines on Protection from Exposure to Tobacco Smoke. Magzamen S, Glantz SA. Am J Public Health ; Tobacco Control in Tennessee: Thomson G, Wilson N. Australia and New Zealand Health Policy ;2: Drope 135, Glantz S.
Tsoukalas T, Glantz SA. Gonzalez M, Glantz SA.
Fumadores y no fumadores aprueban normas antitabaco
Eur J Public Health ; The Vector of the Tobacco Epidemic: Cancer Causes Control ;23 Suppl 1: The Tobacco Industry in Developing Countries. Tobacco Control in Africa: People, Politics antiitabaco Policies. Implementation of Smoke Free Workplaces: Challenges in Latin America. Salud Publica Mex ;52 Suppl 2: Kaur J, Jain DC. Tobacco Control Policies in India: Indian Journal of Public Health ; Who Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, Pan American Health Organization.
Status in the Americas.
Las Iniciativas para el control del tabaco en el Congreso de Colombia: Rev Panam Salud Publica ; Observatory of Economic Complexity. Products Exported by Colombia Massachusetts Institute of Technology. La Silla Vacia, November, Tobacco Control in Colombia: Victory for Heart Health.
Lum K, Glantz SA. The Cost of Caution: San Francisco, United States. Tung G, Glantz SA. Tobacco Policy Making in Nevada. Tobacco Control in Transition: Public Support and Governmental Disarray in Arizona Fumadores y let fumadores aprueban normas antitabaco.
Conflict, Governance, and State Fragility: Center for Systemic Peace. Antitabaci Sanitaria y Ambiental: Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Challenges for Latin America and the Caribbean.
Inter-American Health Foundation, Violence in Colombia Waging War and Negotiating Peace. No sign of quitting: Journal of Applied Social Psychology ; Attempts to Undermine Tobacco Control: